CSE User's Manual

California Simulation Engine

5 Output Reports

CSE report data is accumulated during simulation and written to the report file at the end of the run. Some reports are generated by default and cannot be turned off. There are a set of predefined reports which may be requested in the input. The user may also define custom reports which include many CSE internal variables. Reports may accumulate data on an a variety of frequencies including subhourly, hourly, daily, monthly, and annual (run) intervals.

5.1 Units

The default units for CSE reports are:

EnergymBtu, millions of Btu (to convert to kWh divide by 292)
Temperaturedegrees Farenheit
Air Flowcfm (cubic feet per minute)

5.2 Time

Hourly reports show hour 1 through 24 where hour 1 includes the time period from midnight to 1 AM. By default, CSE specifies that January first is a Thursday and the simulation occurs on a non-leap year. Daylight savings is in effect from the second Sunday of March on which CSE skips hour 3 until the first Sunday of November when CSE simulates 25 hours. These calendar defaults can be modified as required.

5.3 METER Reports

A Meter Report displays the energy use of a METER object, a user-defined “device” that records energy consumption of equipment as simulated by CSE. CSE allows the user to define as many meters as desired and to assign any energy using device to any meter.

Meters account for energy use in pre-defined categories, called end uses, that are documented with METER.

5.4 Air Flow Meter Report

An Air Flow Meter Report displays air flow values accumulated by an AFMETER that is associated with one or more ZONEs. The report provides insight into the results of the AirNet pressure model.

AFMETER maintains values for subhour, hour, day, month, and year intervals. Values are standard cfm (0.075 lb/ft3). Values for intervals longer than subhour are averages.

Flows are categorized by 1) direction of flow (+ = into zone(s), - = out of zone(s)); IZXFER izAFCat tags; and 3) type of source or sink of the flow (ambient, unconditioned zone, conditioned zone).

The following items are displayed (using the abbreviations shown in the report headings). The “+/-” notation indicates that two columns are included, one for each direction of flow. For example, “InfX+/-” means the report includes columns “InfX+” (infiltration flows into the zone) and “InfX-” (infiltration flows out of the zone).

Tot+/-Total flows
Unkn+/-Uncategorized flows (generally this shows 0)
InfX+/-Infiltration flows from/to ambient (izAFCat = InfilEx)
VntX+/-Natural vent exchanges from/to ambient (izAFCat = VentEx)
FanX+/-Forced vent and DOAS flows to/from ambient (izAFCat = FanEx)
InfU+/-Infiltration flows from/to unconditioned zones (izAFCat = InfilIz)
VntU+/-Natural vent flows from/to unconditioned zones (izAFCat = VentIz)
FanU+/-Forced vent flows from/to unconditioned zones (izAFCat = FanIz)
InfC+/-Infiltration flows from/to conditioned zones (izAFCat = InfilIz)
VntC+/-Natural vent flows from/to conditioned zones (izAFCat = VentIz)
FanC+/-Forced vent flows from/to conditioned zones (izAFCat = FanIz)
Duct+/-Duct leakage flows
HVAC+/-HVAC air flows at zone (i.e. at registers)

5.5 Energy Balance Report

The Energy Balance Report displays the temperature and sensible and latent heat flows into and out of the air of a single zone. Sign conventions assume that a positive flow increases the air temperature. Heat flow from a warm mass element such as a concrete wall into the zone air is defined as a positive flow, heat flow from air into mass is negative. Solar gain into the zone is defined as a positive heat flow. Solar gain that is incident on and absorbed directly into a mass element is shown as both a positve in the SOLAR column (gain to the zone) and a negative in the MASS column (lost from the zone to the mass).

In a real building zone energy and moisture flows must balance due to the laws of physics. CSE uses approximate solutions for the energy and moisture balances and displays the net balance which is a measure of internal calculation error.

The following items are displayed (using the abbreviations shown in the report headings):

TairAir temperature in the zone (since CSE uses combined films this is technically the effective temperature and includes radiant effects).
WBairWet Bulb temperature in the zone.
CondHeat flow through light weight surfaces from or to the outdoors.
InfSSensible infiltration heat flow from outdoors.
SlrSolar gain through glazing (net) and solar gains absorbed by light surfaces and transmitted into the zone air.
IgnSSensible internal gains from lights, equipment, people, etc.
MassNet heat flow to (negative) and from (positive) the mass elements of the zone.
IzoneNet heat flows to other zones in the building.
MechSNet heat flows from heating, cooling and ventilation.
BALSThe balance (error) calculated by summing the sensible gains and losses.
InfLLatent infiltration heat flow.
IgnLLatent internal gains.
AirLLatent heat absorbed (negative) or released (positive) by changes in the room air moisture content.
MechLLatent heat added or removed by cooling or ventilation.
BalLThe balance (error) calculated by summing the sensible gains and losses.

5.6 Air Handler Load Report

The Air Handler Load Report displays conditions and loads at the peak load hours for the air handler for a single zone. The following items are displayed:

PkVfPeak flow (cfm) at supply fan
VfDsSupply fan design flow (same as peak for E10 systems)
PkQHPeak heat output from heating coil.
HcaptRated capacity of heat coil

The rest are about the cooling coil. Most of the columns are values at the time of peak part load ratio (plr). Note that, for example, the peak sensible load is the sensible load at the time of peak part load ratio, even if there was a higher sensible load at another time when the part load ratio was smaller.

PkMoMonth of cooling coil peak plr, 1-12
DyDay of month 1-31 of peak
HrHour of day 1-24 of cooling coil peak plr.
ToutOutdoor drybulb temperature at time of cooling coil peak plr.
WbouOutdoor wetbulb similarly
TenCooling coil entering air temperature at time of peak plr.
WbenEntering wetbulb similarly
TexExiting air temperature at plr peak
WbexExiting air wetbulb similarly
-PkQsSensible load at time of peak plr, shown positive.
-PkQlLatent load likewise
-PkQCTotal load – sum of PkQs and PkQl
CPlrPeak part load ratio: highest fraction of coil’s capacity used, reflecting both fraction of maximum output under current conditions used when on and fraction of the time the fan is on. The maximum output under actual conditions can vary considerably from the rated capacity for DX coils. The fraction of maximum output used can only be 1.0 if the sensible and total loads happen to occur in the same ratio as the sensible and total capacities. The time the fan is on can be less than 1.0 for residential systems in which the fan cycles on with the compressor. For example, if at the cooling peak the coil ran at .8 power with the fan on .9 of the time, a CPlr of .72 would be reported. The preceding 12 columns are values at the time this peak occured.
CcaptCooling coil rated total capacity
CcapsRated sensible capacity.

5.7 Air Handler Report

The Air Handler Load Report displays conditions and heat flows in the air handler for the time period specified. It is important to note that the air handler report only accumulates data if the air handler is on during an hour. The daily and monthly values are averages of the hours the air handler was on and DO NOT INCLUDE OFF HOUR VALUES. The following items are displayed:

ToutOutdoor drybulb temperature during hours the air handler was on.
WbouOutdoor wetbulb temperature similarly.
TretReturn air dry bulb temperature during hours the air handler was on before return duct losses or leaks.
WbreReturn air wetbulb similarly
poFraction outside air including economizer damper leakage, but not return duct leakage.
TmixMixed air dry bulb temperature – after return air combined with outside air; after return fan, but before supply fan and coil(s).
WbmiMixed air wet bulb temperature, similarly.
TsupSupply air dry bulb temperature to zone terminals – after coil(s) and air handler supply duct leak and loss; (without in zone duct losses after terminals).
WBsuSupply air wet bulb temperature similarly.
HrsOnHours during which the fan operated at least part of the time.
FOnFraction of the time the fan was on during the hours it operated (HrsOn). CHECK FOR VAV, IS IT FLOW OR TIME
VFVolumetric flow, measured at mix point/supply fan/coils; includes air that leaks out of supply duct and is thus non-0 even when zone terminals are taking no flow
QheatHeat energy added to air stream by heat coil, if any, MEASURED AT COIL not as delivered to zones (see Qload).
Qsens, Qlat and QcoolSensible, latent, and total heat added to air stream (negative values) by cooling coil, MEASURED AT COIL, including heat cancelled by fan heat and duct losses, and heat added to air lost through supply duct leak.
QoutNet heat taken from outdoor air. Sum of sensible and latent, measured RELATIVE TO CURRENT RETURN AIR CONDITIONS.
QfanHeat added to air stream by supply fan, plus return fan if any – but not relief fan..
QlossHeat added to air stream by supply and return duct leaks and conductive loss. Computed in each case as the sensible and latent heat in the air stream relative to return air conditions after the leak or loss, less the same value before the leak or loss.
QloadNet energy delivered to the terminals – Sensible and latent energy, measured relative to return air conditions. INCLUDES DUCT LOSSES after terminals; thus will differ from sum of zone qMech’s + qMecLat’s.
QbalSum of all the ‘Q’ columns, primarily a development aid. Zero indicates consistent and accurate computation; the normal printout is something like .0000, indicating that the value was too small to print in the space alloted, but not precisely zero, due to computational tolerances and internal round-off errors.